Recent evidence has highlighted important associations between obstructive sleep apnea and the microbiome. Although the intricacies of the pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, available evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between OSA and microbiota composition. Sleep fragmentation, intermittent hypoxia, and intermittent hypercapnia all play significant roles in altering the microbiome, and initial evidence has shown that alterations of the microbiota affect sleep patterns. Animal model evidence strongly supports the idea that the microbiome mediates disease states associated with OSA including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and obesity. The majority of evidence focuses on changes in the gut microbiome, which may result from OSA as well as contribute to sleep pattern changes, OSA-related CVD, and obesity. Meanwhile, a developing body of work suggests changes in the upper airway microbiome may be associated with OSA and periodontitis-related oral cavity microbiome changes may have significance in OSA-related CVD. Lastly, while evidence is limited, several studies suggest there may be a role for treatment of OSA and OSA-related comorbidities through alteration of the microbiome with probiotics, prebiotics, and microbiota transplantation. These early animal and human studies begin to characterize the interrelationships of the microbiome and OSA and may lead to new avenues for treatment.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Microbiome, Microbiota, Dysbiosis, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, Probiotic
Hypertension, Cardiovascular diseases, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Probiotics, Microbiome
Yi Cai, Hailey M Juszczak, Emily K Cope, Andrew N Goldberg